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Based on documents of monitoring of the state of the mineral resources base in Almaty region as of 2007, we can conclude that this region has various kinds of solid and widespread mineral resources.
The region’s mining sector, due to its historical background over the last 10-15 years, has developed on the basis established over the Soviet period; therefore, today’s geologic data are far from reflecting full amounts and quality of available mineral resources and need to be updated. To increase the role of mineral resources in the region’s economy, further exploration of subsurface resources is required, with survey operations to identify promising areas and lots and to prepare their development.
1. Reserves of basic types of mineral resources registered in the Almaty region state balance:
Gold. The following А+В+С1 category reserves: ledge gold-bearing ores – 320,475,100 tons, placers - 77,300м3; С2 category ore reserves: 1,039,800 tons and 41,500м3 respectively; off-balance reserves include 8,158,000 tons (ledge ores). Among the said reserves, the following is in the subsurface use: А+В+С1 categories - 413,800 tons, С2 category — 730,600 tons. The following is out of the subsurface use: all placer reserves and ledge gold-bearing ore reserves in the following amounts: А+В+С1 categories - 58,600 tons, С2 category -309,200 tons, and off-balance reserves – 8,158,000 tons.
Silver. Reserves of silver-bearing ores: А+В+С1 categories - 336.5 mln tons, С2 category – 2.99 mln tons, off-balance – 78.8 mln tons. Among the said reserves, the following is in the subsurface use: А+В+С1 categories -333.9 mln tons of ore, С2 category - 414,000 tons. The following is out of the subsurface use: ore reserves A+B+С1 – 2.6 mln tons, С2 category – 2,574,200 tons, off-balance reserves – 78.8 mln tons.
Copper. Reserves of copper-bearing ores: А+В+С1 categories – 321.26 mln tons, С2 category – 748,000 tons, off-balance reserves – 20.4 mln tons. Among the said reserves, the following is in the subsurface use: А+В+С1 categories - 320.16 mln tons of ore, off-balance reserves – 17.9 mln tons. The following is out of the subsurface use: A+B+C1 category ore reserves — 1.1 mln tons, С2 category - 748,000 tons, off-balance reserves- 2.47 mln tons.
Molybdenum. Reserves of molybdenum-bearing ores: А+В+С1 categories – 381.3 mln tons, С2 category – 19.6 mln tons, off-balance reserves -51.2 mln tons. Among the said reserves, the following is in the subsurface use: A+B+С1 categories – 320.16 mln tons of ore. The following ore reserves are out of the subsurface use: A+B+С1 categories — 61.15 mln tons, С2 category — 19,600 tons, off-balance reserves – 51.15 mln tons.
Bismuth. Reserves of bismuth-bearing ores: А+В+С1 categories – 54.3 mln tons, С2 category - 15.4 mln tons – are out of the subsurface use.
Lead. Reserves of lead-bearing ores: A+B+C1 categories - 18.5 mln tons, С2 category – 7.7 mln tons, off-balance reserves – 40.4 mln tons -
are out of the subsurface use.
Zinc. Reserves of zinc-bearing ores: A+B+C1 categories – 3.2 mln tons, С2 category - 13,000 tons, off-balance reserves- 38.3 mln tons - are out of the subsurface use.
Tungsten. Reserves of tungsten-bearing ores: A+B+C1 - 114.5 mln tons, С2 category – 15.4 mln tons, off-balance reserves - 37.6 mln tons - are out of the subsurface use.
Barium sulphate. Reserves: А+В+С1 – 6.87 mln tons, С2 category - 3.4 mln tons of BaSO4 - are out of the subsurface use (Tuyuk Deposit).
Coal. (Deposits: Oikaragai, Nizhneiliyskoye, Kalzhat, and 15 lots). Reserves: A+B+C1 categories – 771.8 mln tons, С2 category - 165 mln tons, off-balance reserves - 10 mln tons. Among the said reserves, the following is in the subsurface use: А+В+С1 categories – 7.5 mln tons, С2 category – 2.3 mln tons. The following is out of the subsurface use: A+B+С1 category coal reserves -764.2 mln tons, С2 category – 162.8 mln tons, off-balance reserves - 10 mln tons.
Zeolite. (Deposits: Chankanai, Altyn-Emelskoye). 3.4 mln tons of А+В+С1 category ore reserves are licensed. 41 mln tons of С2 category zeolite ores are out of the subsurface use (tuffs at Altyn-Emelskoye Deposit).
According to specialists, predicted resources in the region are estimated in the following amounts:
- gold - 640 tons (including P1 category resources – 46.1 tons, Р2 category - 258 tons, Р3 category – 335.9 tons);
- copper – 9,000,000 tons (Р1 category - 225,000 tons, Р2 category – 1,475,000 tons, Р3 category – 7,300,000 tons);
- lead – 6,419,000 tons (P1 category – 1,991,000 tons, Р2 category -3,010,000 tons, Р3 category – 1,418,000 tons);
-zinc – 5,690,000 tons (P1 category – 1,827,000 tons, Р2 category -2,396,000 tons, Р3 category - 1,467,000 tons);
- molybdenum - 2,590,000 tons;
- tin - 329,000 tons;
- tungsten - 555,000 tons;
- bauxites - 20 mln tons,
- coal - 11.3 billion tons.
2. Objects with promising potential for mineral resources exploration and production in Almaty region
Copper. Large objects include a group of deposits: Vostok, Kaskyrmys in the south-west of Balkhash region, Tuyuk in Raiymbek administrative district, and Koksay in Kerbulak administrative district. Prospects to identify copper ore objects exist for Ketmen structural metallogenic zone within which estimated copper resources equal 9 mln tons.
Ore reserves are the following by categories:
- А+В+С1 categories – 321.26 mln tons (among them, 320.16 mln tons are in the subsurface use and 1.1 mln tons are out of such use)
- С2 category – 784,000 tons (out of the subsurface use)
-off-balance reserves- 20.4 mln tons (among them, 17.9 mln tons are in the subsurface use and 2.47 mln tons are out of such use)
Prospecting in Ketmen and Koksai structural metallogenic zones and Aktogai ore field looks promising.
Aktogai ore field is located in Aksu district, 22 km east of Aktogai station.
Locally, this ore field matches Koldarsky mass which breaks lower carboniferous depositions and is overlapped with floristically characterized, volcanogenic sedimentary depositions due to the Upper Carboniferous Age and Lower Permian. The area of its bare part is 75 km, while in depth, according to geophysical data, it exceeds 210 km2. Composition mobility is inherent to the mass. A continuous row of subrocks with gradual mutual transits: gabbro - diabase - gabbro - diorite - quartz diorite – granodiorite - granite has been identified. Vein-rock and и minor intrusions include quartz porphyries and dacitic porphyries, plagioporphyrites, diorite porphyrites and diabase porphyrites, plagiogranite porphyries, diorite porphyries and diabase porphyries. Explosive breccias are common. They compose large pipe-like fantastic forms that tear intrusive rock. Breccia material has not intermixed up.
In the ore field, three copper-porphyry deposits have been studied: Aktogai, Aidarly, and Kyzylkiya. Besides, a series of minor signs of lead and zinc has been identified; drilling down to 300-m depth has intercepted 3 blind stockworks.
Aktogai deposit comprises diorites and granodiorites, which contain large remnants of sedimentary volcanogenic rock that includes mostly rhyolite and dacite.
An ore stockwork gets out to the day surface. Its form corresponds to an overturned thick-walled elliptic cone with an internal barren core, such cone wedging and splitting downward into a series of conform jets identified down to a depth of over 800 m. The axis length of horizontal elliptic sections of the stockwork is some 2,500m, with 50-830m width.
In relation to the conditional axis surface of the stockwork, the copper decreases naturally by its internal and external borderlines. The distribution of molybdenum mineralization is similar. Maximums of copper and molybdenum mineralization coincide spacely. Natural increase of pyrite from the barren core to the external contour of the stockwork where the latter interlocks with the external pyrite shell. A change in mineral forms of copper in the same direction is natural – from low-ferruginous or non-ferruginous low-sulfur minerals to ferruginous high-sulfur ones (hypogene chalcosine and bornite- chalcopyrite-cupriferous pyrite). In the stockwork, the average sulfur to copper ratio is 2:1, and the copper to molybdenum ratio is 42:1. Insignificant accumulations of lead and zinc mineralization relate to the contour of the stockwork.
Aidarly Deposit on the surface manifests zones of relatively low ferruginization and isolated outbursts of malachite-chrysolite ores among changed diorites, granodiorites, and granites. Multiple dikes of granodiorite porphyries, plagiogranite porphyries, microgranites, and dike bodies of diabase are developed.
The studied part of the stockwork can be approximated with the upper section of an ellipsoid low-inclined toward southeast, with an internal barren core located at a depth of over 600 m. Horizontal sections of the stockwork are elliptic, with a long axis oriented to northwest. The stockwork has multiple tops and is complicated with large tectonic breaches. Due to one of them (Aidarlinsky upthrow-shift), a part of the stockwork is lifted and shifted to west-south-west at a distance of over 1,000 m.
The internal composition of the stockwork is similar to Aktogai’s one. The intensity of ore mineralization and spacely inferior molybdenum mineralization increases from the internal barren core to the periphery. Unlike Aktogai, it reaches its maximum closer to the upper contour of the stockwork surrounded with more powerful and intensive pyrite shell. In the barren core zone, pyrite is virtually absent. Occurrences of polymetallic mineralization relate to the zone of the external stockwork, develop in the pyrite shell and in a number of cases come out of the limits. They are more intensive in comparison with Aktogai’s.
Continuity of copper mineralization is high and is broken only with dikes of different composition. At a 600-700 m depth, pipe-like bodies of granodiorite porphyries are mineralized as much as granodiorites. The mineralization has been traced with no gap down to the depth of over 1,300 m. The average sulfur to copper ratio for the stockwork is 4.5:1 and the copper to molybdenum ratio is 35:1.
Kyzylkiya Deposit is located in the eastern part of the ore field among changed granodiorites. This is a series of near-EW steeply dipping zones of imbedded and vein-imbedded chalcopyrite-bornite-chalcosine mineralization and weak pyritization. Rocks of vein series, like Aktogai’s ones, are relatively underdeveloped. With the depth, the area of mineralized rock decreases. Lead-zinc mineralization is present at the periphery of the stockwork, but not very apparently. The sulfur to copper ratio is 0.9:1 and the copper to molybdenum ratio exceeds 100:1.
The mineral composition of all the three deposits is more or less the same type. The basic ore minerals include chalcopyrite, pyrite, magnetite, molybdenite, to a less extent – titanium magnetite, мушкетовит, marcasite, pyrrhotine, bornite, chalcosine, sphalerite, rarely – titanic iron ore, maghemite, martite, galenite, fahl ore, enargite, virgin gold.
Copper-molybdenum ores. Copper reaches 1% or more, making on the average 0.39% for Aktogai Deposit and 0.38% for Aidarly. Molybdenum in ores varies between 0.002% and 0.17%, averaging at 0.01%. In addition to copper and molybdenum, there is high rhenium (0.007-2.2 g/t, average: 0.24g/t), of which the major carrier is molybdenite. Rhenium in molybdenite varies within 177-2040 g/t. Selenium is contained in the amount of 1-10g/t, average: 1.8 g/t. Concentrators are chalcopyrite, pyrite, and bornite. Gold varies within 0.07g/t and 0.40g/t in pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and magnetite. Silver varies between 0.25 and 3.6 g/t, averaging at 1.8 g/t. High s of zinc, lead, bismuth, germanium, gallium, indium, thallium, and cobalt have been identified. In separate samples, platinum is present (up to 0.05g/t) and osmium (up to 0.018 g/t in pyrite and 0.036 g/t in chalcopyrite).
Concentrating ability of ore meets requirements approved in the CIS and worldwide. Ore extraction into concentrate with its of 15.09-15.51 is 86.82-89.40%.
Deposits of Aktogai ore field have been explored in detail, and reserves of copper, molybdenum, sulfur, gold, silver, rhenium, and selenium have been approved by the State Reserves Committee in compliance with commercial categories. Additional perspectives for the ore field are limited and include blind ore stockworkов. The deposits are suspended. By metal reserves, Aktogai and Aidarly deposits are large and Kyzylkiya is average.
Sholak-Tuzu-Aktas ore field is located in Uighur district, 85 km from Kegen village. It was studied by Kim V.A., Idyryshev R.I. and includes a number of ore occurrences and mineralization: Sholak, Mednoye, Dardamty, Tugalbai, Zhilandy, ets. These lots with native copper occurrences relate to amygdaloid basalt porphyrites of Bozmoinak suite of the Lower Permian that form the southern wing of the Ketmen Anticlinorium. Native copper contains admixtures: silver– 0.01%, lead – 0.02%, олова – 0.005% and traces of gallium. Occasionally, native silver is present along with native copper.
Lead и zinc. Deposits are located in Tekeli ore area, Tuyuk ore area (Raiymbek administrative district), and Kastek (Zhambyl administrative district) ore area. Prospects to identify new deposits are within the limits of Ketmen, Koksai, and Zailiyskaya structural metallogenic zones. Usek ore area in the east of Tekeli zone can become a raw material base for Tekeli Lead-Zinc Factory in the future. Deposits of Kastek ore joint are prepared for commercial development. Large lead-zinc deposits named Bolshoy Usek and Shapshanzhol located in Panfilov district, at the mountains, are worth attention. The average lead is 6.02%, zinc – 2.15%, silver – 12.3%.
Tin. One tin deposit has been explored in the region: Karagaily-Aktas, Bayankol ore area in Raiymbek administrative district (out of the subsurface use). More detailed exploration is needed for this deposit.
Reserves of lead-bearing ores in Almaty region that are in general out of the subsurface use:
- А+В+С1 categories – 18.5 mln tons;
- С2 category – 7.7 mln tons;
- off-balance reserves– 40.4 mln tons.
Reserves of zinc-bearing ores:
- А+В+С1 categories -3.2 mln tons;
- С2 category – 13,000 tons;
- off-balance -38.3 mln tons.
Tuyuk lead and barium sulphate deposit is worth special attention; it is located in Raiymbek district near the border with Uighur district, 200 km from Almaty.
Tuyuk Deposit is located within the limits of Temirlik ore area. A barium sulphate and polymetallic deposit, Tuyuk is a typical representative of stratiform sedimentary hydrothermal type in Trans-Ili Alatau, located within the limits of the western end of Ketmen range at the north flank of Temirlik mountains, at the height of 2150-2300 m above the sea level. It was discovered in 1955 and, upon evaluation of reserves, was put into operation in 1964. The main ore body on the surface along the lateral extension is traced with trenches at 350-400m. The total bed thickness is 40-60 m, with lead from 1.17% to 3.45% and barium sulphate – up to 79.4%. Basic components in ores are barium sulphate, earth silicon, and lead. These three components are present in different limits and in total make up to 60-80% of the total ore s. By data of chemical and spectral tests, the following useful components are: lead, barium sulphate, and copper. Associated elements: zinc, silver, strontium, cadmium, bismuth, selenium, gallium, thallium, germanium, indium, arsenic, antimony, mercury. Average s of lead and barium sulphate under respective ore grades are approved in B+C1+C2+P1 categories – 52,180,600 tons of ore.
Chinasylsai Deposit is located in Karasai district of Almaty region, 35 km from Almaty. 24 lens- and plateau-shaped ore bodies have been identified. Basic components in ore s are sphalerite and galenite. Average lead is 2.73%, zinc – 1.73%, gold – 0.9g/t, silver – 23.8g/t. Gold in sulphides reaches 22g/t, silver – from 200g/t to 2кg/t in galenite. Cleiophane is rich with cadmium (up to 1.3%).
Total estimated tin reserves in the region, according to specialists, amount to 329,000 tons.
Karagaily-Aktas is located 30 km from Narynkol village. Its basic commercial component is tin; associated components are tungsten and lithium, accompanying components are tantalum, niobium, beryllium; satellite elements are ytterbium, cesium, lead, gallium, germanium. Tin is from 0.01 to 0.5% (average: 0.32%), with maximum numbers in micaceous-quartz differences. Tinstone is the major tin mineral. Body s: topaz-micaceous-quartz, quartz-micaceous and micaceous with intermediary differences. Their basic minerals are quartz (60-65%), microcline (15-20%), mica (10-15%). Ores can be easily dressed at the bulk concentrate stage, but are labor-consuming at selective separation. Tin extraction: 76%, Li2O: up to 80%. There are prospects of expansion of mineralization scopes in the east and increase of ore body thickness in lower levels of the I and II sections.
Tungsten. Tungsten reserves make 15.3% of all national reserves. The proven Boguty Deposit in Enbekshikazakhsky district is prepared for commercial development. Ore occurrences within the limits of Sarkand, Ili, Bayankol, Issykul, and Alakol structural metallogenic zones can be deemed promising.
Reserves by categories:
- А+В+С1 categories - 114.5 mln tons (out of the subsurface use)
- С2 category – 15.4 mln tons (out of the subsurface use)
- off-balance reserves – 37.6 mln tons (out of the subsurface use)
The raw material base of tungsten ores per se (scheelite ores) is represented by Boguty, a large deposit, of which balance reserves have been approved by the State Reserves Committee of the USSR and in B+C1+C2 category are the following: ore - 130 mln tons, tungsten trioxide - 243,200 tons, with average equal to 0.16-0.19%. The deposit has been explored and prepared for commercial development. Matters of selection of an industrial site to build Boguty Mining and Processing Factory, its water supply, and ore dressing technology have been solved. The most efficient variant of dressing is a quarry method with 4-mln-ton annual production capacity. Boguty Deposit has a potential to increase reserves through follow-up exploration of known ore bodies, as well as involvement of a number of tungsten ore occurrences into geological survey within the limits of the ore field. However, such operations are not top priority, since explored reserves are sufficient for normal operation of a mining enterprise for 50 years.
Boguty Deposit is located at Ulken-Bogetty mountains, on the territory of Chiliysky district, 180 km east of Almaty and 8 km north of Almaty-Narynkol highway. Chilik village, the district major point, is 80 km westward.
The deposit was explored in 1969-74. In 1975-80, upon a recommendation of the State Reserves Committee of the USSR, flanks and deeps were explored additionally and barren industrial site was justified for a future mining and concentrating factory. In 1980, the deposit was transferred to the former Ministry of Non-Ferrous Metallurgy of the USSR.
The deposit is represented by a quartz-venous linear stockwork localized in a zone of high cleavage in the thickness of the sandy and shaly Middle Ordovician, in immediate proximity of the contact of Boguty granite mass. The expansion of the stockwork is northeastward. The stockwork ore zone consists of a series of 0.1-0.3 m thick subparallel scheelite-bearing quartz veins, steeply dipping toward С3. The ore zone by its ore intension is divided into three subzones: Central, Northwestern, and Eastern. In the Central ore zone, which contains 86% of balance reserves, 18 ore bodies were identified by sampling; the largest of them are bodies Nos. 1 and 2 that are 900 and 600 m long respectively and 200-400 m and 92 m thick; they were traced down to a 600 and 100-150 m depth. The length of other ore bodies does not exceed 300 m with 6-50 m thickness.
Ores are located by nests, impregnations, and veins; the basic ore mineral is scheelite, secondary minerals are tungstenite, molybdenite, bismuth; there are chalcopyrite, pyrite, galenite, sphalerite. Average s in balance ores: tungsten trioxide 0.19%, molybdenum 0.006%, bismuth 0.006%, in off-balance ores: average of tungsten trioxide is 0.12-0.13%.
Near the deposit, a scheelite placer deposit named Bogutinskaya Rossyp is located; it is connected with deluvial-proluvial sandshale incrustations. The placer deposit is some 3.5 km long, 7-15m wide, and 1.2-15m thick. Exploration operations (1947) within the placer deposit identified 5 lots where lots Nos. 1,2,3 include 91% of the balance reserves of the deposit. Average scheelite in rich parts of the placer deposit is 1281.5g/m and measured resources are 18.8 tons.
As a result of exploration operations at Boguty Deposit, the following resources of ore and metals have been measured with 0.08% cutoff grade of tungsten trioxide down to 350-m depth as approved by the State Reserves Committee of the USSR on 9.12.1974 (Minutes No. 7297):
Technologic research showed that at ore concentration of the deposit by a flotation method it is possible to produce KShT-1 scheelite concentrate with tungsten trioxide up to 60% and extraction up to 82%. At the same time, the concentration scheme includes serial implementation of sulphide and scheelite flotation, final concentration of black scheelite concentrate, and removal of harmful impurity - phosphorus. Due to low s and low recovery, production of molybdenum and bismuth commercial products was declared unprofitable.
By its reserves, Boguty tungsten deposit is the second largest in the country after only Verkhne-Kairaktinskoye located in Central Kazakhstan. In general, the condition of exploration of this object allows considering it prepared for mining enterprise design.
Titanium. Terekty titanium-magnetite deposit is located 20 km northeast of Karabulak village, Eskeldinsky district. Its embedded body has been identified. It is 400m long, 15m thick, and has been traced down to a 75-100m depth; it is not outlined at flanks and in depth. It contains TiO2 – 5.54% (average), in separate samples – 16.32, ferrum - 35-45%. Associated elements are chrome, vanadium, tungsten, arsenic that amount to tenths percent. The deposit resources are 30-50 mln tons of ore.
Coal. Prospects for development of the coal sector are connected with development of uranium-coal deposits. In their number, the largest are Nizhneiliyskoye, Kolzhat, Oikaragai and 15 lots.
Reserves by categories:
- А+В+С1 categories – 771.8 mln tons (among them, 7.5 mln tons are in the subsurface use and 764.2 mln tons are out of such use)
- С2 category– 165 mln tons (among them, 2.3 mln tons are in the subsurface use and 162.8 mln tons are out of such use)
-off-balance reserves - 10 mln tons (out of the subsurface use)
Kolzhat and Oikaragai Deposits of brown coal (2 sites that are not being operated) seem to be the most interesting.
Kolzhat Deposit is located in the Ili cavity, at the northern foothill of Ketmen range, by the Chinese border. This is a uranium-coal deposit. Brown coal reserves amount to some 1 billion tons. A matter of development by an underground gasification is under consideration. Today, in virtually all large coal producer countries of the world an interest for underground gasification dramatically grew up. From the point of view of rare metals, such elements as molybdenum (0.1-0.15%), zirconium (0.1%), yttrium (0.01-0.06%), rhenium (10-33g/t), selenium (up to 0.25%) are of interest. Molybdenum mineralization is represented in occurrences with ilsemanite, jordisite, and molybdenite. In ore-bearing coals and, occasionally, in sandstone soils, the following have been identified: high germanium concentrations: 5-9 g/t (up to 50); titanium, barium, manganese (0.1%); vanadium, nickel, chrome, and cobalt (up to 0.009%), lead (up to 0.02%). The deposit is prepared for commercial development.
Bituminous coal deposits are located in Koksuysky district (Karasayskoye and Mukry) and Panfilov district (Burkhan and Tyshkan) of the region and are approved as minor by their reserves.
Underground waters.On the region territory, 62 deposits (152 lots) of underground waters have been explored, with their balance reserves of 16,895,100 m3/day, including water for service and drinking purposes – 4,059,500 m3/day, for industrial and technical purposes- 142,500 m3/day, for soil irrigation – 12,693,000 m3/day. The region has a huge underground water potential; their forecast operational resources amount to 27,249,000 m3/day, including water with up to 1 g/dm3 mineralization – 26,834,200 m3/day. Now, 44 underground water deposits are being operated (134 lots) with a total water intake amounting to 1,000,600 m3/day, including for service and drinking purposes - 337,300 m3/day, for industrial and technical purposes - 345,000 m3/day, for soil irrigation - 17,200 m3/day, thermal energy waters - 16,200 m3/day, combined use - 17,700 m3/day. Total water losses during transportation of underground waters is 266,300 m3/day. Water intake at lots with unproved reserves for service and drinking purposes is 4,710 m3.
Mineral waters. Almaty region is promising as for its mineral waters. By the present time, on its territory more than 2,036 occurrences of mineral water with different chemical s and temperature have been identified. At 10 deposits (18 lots), reserves of underground waters for treating purposes have been identified in the amount of 12,110 m3 /day by a total of A+B+C1+C2 categories. In 2005, two lots with a total reserves of 267 m3/day were credited to the balance and reserves of Aksaiskoye Deposit were reevaluated with decrease of resources by 460 m3 /day.
Thermomineral water at Alma-Arasan Deposit by its chemical is close to French mineral waters of Pyrenean type (Ex Le Ben, etc), which are world-wide known. At present, a resort is operating at this location. On the basis of Almaty Deposit mineral waters, health resorts and a balneary are operating. Weakly mineralized, weakly alkaline, thermal chloride hydrocarbonate-sulphate natrium waters of Alban-Arasan Deposit are used for table bottling. Tau-Turgen mineral waters by their chemical are nitric, sulphate, calcium natrium, weakly thermal, mineralized without “specific” components; at present are not being operated. A lot of peloids is preliminarily measured (Tuzkol Lake). Mineral table waters are taken from two lots of springs named Teply Kluch and Akkainar for bottling purposes. Mineral water intake is performed at 14 lots in the amount of 1,080 m3/day.
Widespread mineral resources. Deposits of widespread mineral resources are numerous and various. The region has deposits of natural face stones, clay soils, limestones, as-dug gravels, quartzy and river sand, building stones, and other materials that are located in different administrative districts of the region. Amounts of reserves sufficiently meet the dynamically developing construction industry. More than 200 enterprises have subsurface use licenses. Besides, according to Yuzhkaznedra’s data, there are 25 explored widespread mineral resources deposits out of the subsurface use where the SEC can carry on mining and processing. Including 10 deposits of brick earth, 11 deposits of as-dug gravels, 2 deposits of face stones, and 2 deposits of building stones.
The largest deposits are:
brick earth: Dzhansugurovskoye (2,324,000m3), Bakanasskoye (1,012,000 m3)
as-dug gravels: Bizhe (8,606,000 m3) and Bizhe 2 (3,912,000 m3), Komsomolskoye (5,119,000 m3).
building stones: Lepsinskoye (2,146,000 m3), Akogaiskoye (8,659,000 m3).
face stones: Kazbulak in Uighur district (475,000 m3).
The helpful location of building stones at the right and left flanks of the Ili river near the city of Kapshagai and mason’s sand near the village of Arna allows to concentrate concrete and macadam productions in this area with a prospect of supplying materials to large construction sites such as construction of the city of Zhana Ile, G-4 satellite cities, logistic centers, and industrial zones
As-dug gravel lots in Ili district, Enbekshikazakhsky and Talgar districts at the rivers of Talgar, Issyk, Shelek and others would allow to provide for development of the region’s transport infrastructure and such projects as Zhetygen-Khorgos railway, Almaty-Khorgos highway, Almaty Great Belt Road, Almaty-Kapshagai.
Panfilovskoye as-dug gravels deposit and lots by Khorgos vil. would allow to produce inert materials to implement the project of construction of Khorgos – Eastern Gateway ICBC and Khorgos FEZ.
Promising lots to produce red and grey granites around Kurty vil. and at Arasanskaya area can be developed with the purpose of supplying facing and block products to construction sites in the region, including finishing of the Almaty Subway.
A mountain range located northwest of the city of Tekely has giant reserves of high-quality limestones for cement industry and block white and grey marble. A mountain mass in Raiymbek district by Aktas vil. has huge limestone reserves.